Stan

In English, the official names of the following countries end with the Persian suffix “-stan”, the equivelant of our own “-land”:

  • Kazakhstan (Қазақстан/Qazaqstan)
  • Kyrgyzstan (Кыргызстан/Kırgızstan)
  • Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston)
  • Tajikistan (Тоҷикистон/تاجیکستان/Tâjikestân)
  • Afghanistan (افغانستان/Afqânestân)
  • Turkmenistan (Türkmenistan)
  • Pakistan (پاکستان/Pákistán)

Additionally, Armenians refer to their own country as “Hayastan” (Հայաստան) and the breakaway republic of (South) Ossetia is “Iryston” (Ирыстон). However there are many other cases of exonymic “-stan”s:

  • Gürcüstan/Gürcistan/Гөрҗистан (Görcistan)/Gurjiston/گرجستان (Gorjestân): is how Georgia is known to Persians, as well as many other Iranian peoples and many Turks as well. Armenians call Georgia Վրաստան (Vrastan).
  • Ermenistan/Ermənistan/Әрмәнстан (Ärmänstan)/Armaniston/ارمنستان (Armanestân): Among similar groups to those who refer to Georgia with a “-stan” suffix, Armenia is known thus.
  • The idea of “Arabia” is commonly conveyed with a “-stan” suffix, although in official usage this can only refer (as “Arabia” does in English) to the Saudi state: Arabistan, Ərəbistan, Arabystan, Arabiston, ئەرەبىستان (Erebistan), Ғәрәбстан (Ğäräbstan), Арабстан (Arabstan), Erebıstan, Erebistan, عربستان (Arabestân).
  • Hungary, too, is widely known as the equivelant of “Magyarstan” in “the Orient”: Macaristan, Macarıstan, Мажарстан (Majarstan), مەجارستان (Majârstân), Маҷористон/مجارستان (Majârestân)

Several Balkan states also receive the honour of such a rebranding in Turkey and sometimes Azerbaijan (consequently, Turkish Kurds also use such nomenclature, while Iraqi Kurds do not):

  • Greece: Yunanistan, Yunanıstan, Yewnanistan, and to Armenians Հունաստան (Hounastan)
  • Bulgaria: Bulgaristan, Bulğaristan, Bolqarıstan, Bulğarıstan
  • Serbia: Sırbistan, Serbistan, Sırbıstan
  • Croatia: Hırvatistan, Xırvatıstan

Further afield, China and Russia are known to Armenians (and seemingly ONLY to Armenians) as Չինաստանի (Chinastan) and Ռուսաստան (Rousastan), while India was known for much of modern history as Hindustan (ہندوستان/हिन्दुस्तान, which somehow becomes Үндістан/Ündistan to Kazakhs).

All of which is to say nothing of the numerous pre-modern states, regions, jokes or proposed states with a “-stan” ending!

UPDATE (thanks “Tigranuhi”): Armenians also apparently refer to Iran–historically and/or unofficially–as Պարսկաստան (Parskastan).

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